Interpretation

Resources in this section share some of the different techniques groups use to make meaning of the patterns and trends they observe in the information they have accumulated. This is another point in evaluation or knowledge development where there is an opportunity to make a real difference – to maintain current patterns of thought or to interrupt them. This is a point at which it is important to ask some key questions. For instance: what constitutes success of this work, and who says so? What is the story in the data, if knowing that structural racism and privilege exist and influence opportunities, resources and individual and system behaviors? One way to find out more is to share data at this stage with multiple stakeholders, and with groups positioned differently with respect to the power and privilege dynamics of this work and the evaluation, and ask them – do you see yourselves in these data? What story are the data telling you?


Resources

Title
Author
Organization
Significance in Statistics & Surveys
Creative Research Systems
Evaluating Community Organizing: What to Consider and Capture
Catherine Crystal Foster and Justin Louie
Center for Evaluation Innovation; Blueprint Research + Design
Equity in Education: Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education - Technical Assistance Manual for Identifying Root Causes
NYU Metropolitan Center for Urban Education
Broadening the Range of Designs and Methods for Impact Evaluations
Elliot Stern, et al.
Department for International Development
Evidence of Change: Exploring Civic Engagement Evaluation
Building Movement Project et al.
Principles for Evaluating Comprehensive Community Initiatives
David Chavis, Kien Lee, and Elizabeth Jones, et al.
Association for the Study and Development of Community; National Funding Collaborative on Violence Prevention
The Growing Segmentation of the Charter School Sector in North Carolina
Helen F. Ladd, C. T. Clotfelter, and J. B. Holbein
Duke University

“Inquiry is a powerful tool and it shapes narrative and worldview and perceptions, and they actually have a fundamental role in redefining how that inquiry should be informed by.”

~ Jara Dean-Coffey, Equitable Evaluation Initiative

SPOTLIGHT

Evaluating Health Equity Means Deep Analysis of Structural Racism – Society for Community Research and Action

Also in this section:
  • Analysis Process

GLOSSARY

Cultural Appropriation

Theft of cultural elements—including symbols, art, language, customs, etc.—for one’s own use, commodification, or profit, often without understanding, acknowledgement,or respect for its value in the original culture. Results from the assumption of a dominant (i.e. white) culture’s right to take other cultural elements.


SOURCE:  Colours of Resistance Archive, “Cultural Appropriation (accessed 28 June 2013).

Cultural Racism

Cultural racism refers to representations, messages and stories conveying the idea that behaviors and values associated with white people or “whiteness” are automatically “better” or more “normal” than those associated with other racially defined groups. Cultural racism shows up in advertising, movies, history books, definitions of patriotism, and in policies and laws. Cultural racism is also a powerful force in maintaining systems of internalized supremacy and internalized racism. It does that by influencing collective beliefs about what constitutes appropriate behavior, what is seen as beautiful, and the value placed on various forms of expression. All of these cultural norms and values in the U.S. have explicitly or implicitly racialized ideals and assumptions (for example, what “nude” means as a color, which facial features and body types are considered beautiful, which child-rearing practices are considered appropriate.)


SOURCE:  RacialEquityTools.org


Related Resources:  Racism (scroll down alphabetically to the box for “Cultural Racism”)

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Ethnicity

A social construct that divides people into smaller social groups based on characteristics such as shared sense of group membership, values, behavioral patterns, language, political and economic interests, history, and ancestral geographical base.


Examples of different ethnic groups are: Cape Verdean, Haitian, African American (Black); Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese (Asian); Cherokee, Mohawk, Navaho (Native American); Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican (Latino); Polish, Irish, and Swedish (White).


SOURCE:  Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A Sourcebook, edited by Maurianne Adams, Lee Anne Bell, and Pat Griffin, Routledge, 1997.


Related Resources:  Race, Ethnicity, and Indigeneity (scroll down alphabetically to the box for “Ethnicity”)

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Inclusion

Authentically bringing traditionally excluded individuals and/or groups into processes, activities, and decision/policy making in a way that shares power.


SOURCE:  OpenSource Leadership Strategies

People of Color

Often the preferred collective term for referring to non-White racial groups. Racial justice advocates have been using the term “people of color” (not to be confused with the pejorative “colored people”) since the late 1970s as an inclusive and unifying frame across different racial groups that are not White, to address racial inequities. While “people of color” can be a politically useful term, and describes people with their own attributes (as opposed to what they are not, e.g., “non-White”), it is also important whenever possible to identify people through their own racial/ethnic group, as each has its own distinct experience and meaning and may be more appropriate.


SOURCE:  Race Forward, “Race Reporting Guide” (2015).

Racial and Ethnic Identity

An individual’s awareness and experience of being a member of a racial and ethnic group; the racial and ethnic categories that an individual chooses to describe him or herself based on such factors as biological heritage, physical appearance, cultural affiliation, early socialization, and personal experience.


SOURCE:  Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A Sourcebook, edited by Maurianne Adams, Lee Anne Bell, and Pat Griffin, Routledge, 1997.


Related Resources:  Race, Ethnicity, and Indigeneity (includes “Resources by Specific Racial/Ethnic Groups”)

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Structural Racialization

Structural racialization connotes the dynamic process that creates cumulative and durable inequalities based on race. Interactions between individuals are shaped by and reflect underlying and often hidden structures that shape biases and create disparate outcomes even in the absence of racist actors or racist intentions. The presence of structural racialization is evidenced by consistent differences in outcomes in education attainment, family wealth, and even life span.


SOURCE:  Systems Thinking and Race: Workshop Summary by john a. powell, Connie Cagampang Heller, and Fayza Bundalli (The California Endowment, 2011).


Related Resources:  Structural Racism

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Whiteness

  1. The term white, referring to people, was created by Virginia slave owners and colonial rules in the 17th century. It replaced terms like Christian and Englishman to distinguish European colonists from Africans and indigenous peoples. European colonial powers established whiteness as a legal concept after Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676, during which indentured servants of European and African descent had united against the colonial elite. The legal distinction of white separated the servant class on the basis of skin color and continental origin. The creation of ‘whiteness’ meant giving privileges to some, while denying them to others with the justification of biological and social inferiority.

  2. Whiteness itself refers to the specific dimensions of racism that serve to elevate white people over people of color. This definition counters the dominant representation of racism in mainstream education as isolated in discrete behaviors that some individuals may or may not demonstrate, and goes beyond naming specific privileges (McIntosh, 1988). Whites are theorized as actively shaped, affected, defined, and elevated through their racialization and the individual and collective consciousness formed within it ... Whiteness is thus conceptualized as a constellation of processes and practices rather than as a discrete entity (i.e. skin color alone). Whiteness is dynamic, relational, and operating at all times and on myriad levels. These processes and practices include basic rights, values, beliefs, perspectives, and experiences purported to be commonly shared by all but which are actually only consistently afforded to white people.


SOURCE:

1. PBS, “Race: The Power of an Illusion” (2018–2019 relaunch of 2003 series).

2. Robin DiAngelo, “White Fragility” (International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 2011).


Related Resources:  System of White Supremacy and White Privilege

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts