Conflict Transformation and Restorative Justice
Restorative Justice starts with the question “What was the harm done to the community? How can a person who created harm give back?” Transformative Justice asks why the harm was committed, what are the root causes, and what the survivor or community needs for justice.
While both Restorative Justice and Transformative Justice seek to provide safety for the person(s) who experienced harm, Transformative Justice (TJ) is conceived to operate outside of the criminal justice system and actively cultivates the things we know that prevent violence such as healing, accountability, resilience, and safety for all involved. Restorative Justice of [...]
Addressing Conflict and Mediation Resources and Tools
Conflict Resolution with Power and Privilege in Mind
Amy Benson and Kad Smith
CompassPoint Nonprofit Services
Turning Towards Each Other: A Conflict Workbook
Jovida Ross and Weyam Ghadbian
Movement Strategy Center
Restoring Justice: Restorative Conflict Resolution
Columbia Legal Services
Challenging Neutrality, Examining Privilege And Encouraging Practitioner Self-Reflexivity: A Social Justice Approach To ADR
Mediation and Social Justice: Risks and Opportunities
Robert A. Baruch Bush and Joseph P. Folger
Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution
What Is “Conflict Literacy?”
Conflict Transformation Fund
Concepts and General Resources
Restorative Justice Resources and Tools
“Because we live in a world shaped by legacies of brutal colonization, enslavement, and heteropatriarchy, we must assume that these power structures are always present in us and our relationships. Whether or not we have formal power, we can enact subtle and gross forms of anti-Blackness, white supremacy, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, ableism, classism, and other structural oppressions. When we avoid conflict or move through it carelessly, we end up acting out and reinforcing micro versions of oppressive structural patterns unconsciously, even if we are from an identity harmed by those systems. This can end relationships, sidetrack organizations, and undermine social movements.”
~ Jovida Ross and Weyam Ghadbian, Turning Toward Each Other: A Conflict Workbook
How We Can Start to Heal the Pain of Racial Division – Ruby Sales, TED
Also in this section:
Addressing Trauma and Healing
Caucus and Affinity Groups
Organizational Change Process
Training and Popular Education
Dialogue and Deliberation
Policy and Legislative Change
Youth Activism and Intergenerational Work
Arts and Culture
Hate Crimes Prevention and Response
An anti-racist is someone who is supporting an antiracist policy through their actions or expressing antiracist ideas. This includes the expression of ideas that racial groups are equals and do not need developing, and supporting policies that reduce racial inequity.
SOURCE: Ibram X. Kendi, How To Be An Antiracist, Random House, 2019.
Caucusing (Affinity Groups)
A caucus is an intentionally created space for those who share an identity to convene for learning, support, and connections. Caucuses based on racial identity are often comprised, respectively, of people of color, white people, people who hold multiracial identities, or people who share specific racial or ethnic identities.
To advance racial equity, there is work for white people and people of color to do separately and together. Caucuses provide spaces for people to work within their own racial/ethnic groups. For white people, a caucus provides time and space to work explicitly and intentionally on understanding white culture and white privilege and to increase one’s critical analysis around these concepts. A white caucus also puts the onus on white people to teach each other about these ideas, rather than placing a burden on people of color to teach them. For people of color, a caucus is a place to work with peers to address the impact of racism, to interrupt experiences of internalized racism, and to create a space for healing and working for individual and collective liberation. At times, people of color may also break into more specific race-based caucuses, sometimes based on experiences with a particular issue, for example police violence, immigration, or land rights. Groups that use caucuses in their organizational racial equity work, especially in workplaces and coalitions, generally meet separately and create a process to rejoin and work together collectively.
SOURCE: RacialEquityTools.org (ACT / Strategies / Caucus and Affinity Groups)
Related Resources: Caucus and Affinity Groups
Location: ACT / Strategies
Also known as unconscious or hidden bias, implicit biases are negative associations that people unknowingly hold. They are expressed automatically, without conscious awareness. Many studies have indicated that implicit biases affect individuals’ attitudes and actions, thus creating real-world implications, even though individuals may not even be aware that those biases exist within themselves. Notably, implicit biases have been shown to trump individuals’ stated commitments to equality and fairness, thereby producing behavior that diverges from the explicit attitudes that many people profess. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is often used to measure implicit biases with regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, age, religion, and other topics.
SOURCE: Cheryl Staats, State of the Science: Implicit Bias Review 2013, Kirwan Institute, The Ohio State University.
Related Resources: Implicit Bias
Location: ACT / Communicating
The everyday verbal, nonverbal, and environmental slights, snubs, or insults, whether intentional or unintentional, which communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative messages to target persons based solely upon their marginalized group membership.
SOURCE: Derald Wing Sue, PhD, “Microaggressions: More than Just Race” (Psychology Today, 17 November 2010).
Related Resources: Racism (scroll down alphabetically to the box for “Interpersonal Racism”)
Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts
A process of learning about and becoming allies with people from other cultures, thereby broadening our own understanding and ability to participate in a multicultural process. The key element to becoming more culturally competent is respect for the ways that others live in and organize the world and an openness to learn from them.
SOURCE: Paul Kivel, “Multicultural Competence” (2007).
Related Resources: Multicultural Competency
Location: ACT / Strategies
Power is unequally distributed globally and in U.S. society; some individuals or groups wield greater power than others, thereby allowing them greater access and control over resources. Wealth, whiteness, citizenship, patriarchy, heterosexism, and education are a few key social mechanisms through which power operates. Although power is often conceptualized as power overother individuals or groups, other variations are power with (used in the context of building collective strength) and power within (which references an individual’s internal strength). Learning to “see” and understand relations of power is vital to organizing for progressive social change.
Power may also be understood as the ability to influence others and impose one’s beliefs. All power is relational, and the different relationships either reinforce or disrupt one another. The importance of the concept of power to anti-racism is clear: racism cannot be understood without understanding that power is not only an individual relationship but a cultural one, and that power relationships are shifting constantly. Power can be used malignantly and intentionally, but need not be, and individuals within a culture may benefit from power of which they are unaware.
To restore to health or soundness; to repair or set right; to restore to spiritual wholeness.
SOURCE: Michael R. Wenger, Racial Equity Resource Guide (W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2012).
Locations: ACT / Strategies and PLAN / Issues
Reconciliation involves three ideas. First, it recognizes that racism in America is both systemic and institutionalized, with far–reaching effects on both political engagement and economic opportunities for minorities. Second, reconciliation is engendered by empowering local communities through relationship-building and truth-telling. Lastly, justice is the essential component of the conciliatory process—justice that is best termed as restorative rather than retributive, while still maintaining its vital punitive character.
Related Resources: Racial Reconciliation
Location: ACT / Strategies
Restorative Justice is a theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused by crime and conflict. It places decisions in the hands of those who have been most affected by a wrongdoing, and gives equal concern to the victim, the offender, and the surrounding community. Restorative responses are meant to repair harm, heal broken relationships, and address the underlying reasons for the offense. Restorative Justice emphasizes individual and collective accountability. Crime and conflict generate opportunities to build community and increase grassroots power when restorative practices are employed.
SOURCE: The Movement for Black Lives (M4BL), “Glossary.”
Related Resources: Conflict Transformation and Restorative Justice
Location: ACT / Strategies
White Supremacy Culture
White Supremacy Culture refers to the dominant, unquestioned standards of behavior and ways of functioning embodied by the vast majority of institutions in the United States. These standards may be seen as mainstream, dominant cultural practices; they have evolved from the United States’ history of white supremacy. Because it is so normalized it can be hard to see, which only adds to its powerful hold. In many ways, it is indistinguishable from what we might call U.S. culture or norms – a focus on individuals over groups, for example, or an emphasis on the written word as a form of professional communication. But it operates in even more subtle ways, by actually defining what “normal” is – and likewise, what “professional,” “effective,” or even “good” is. In turn, white culture also defines what is not good, “at risk,” or “unsustainable.” White culture values some ways of thinking, behaving, deciding, and knowing – ways that are more familiar and come more naturally to those from a white, western tradition – while devaluing or rendering invisible other ways. And it does this without ever having to explicitly say so...
An artificial, historically constructed culture which expresses, justifies, and binds together the United States white supremacy system. It is the glue that binds together white-controlled institutions into systems and white-controlled systems into the global white supremacy system.
1. Gita Gulati-Partee and Maggie Potapchuk, “Paying Attention to White Culture and Privilege: A Missing Link to Advancing Racial Equity” (The Foundation Review vol. 6: issue 1, 2014).
2. Sharon Martinas and the Challenging White Supremacy Workshop, 4th revision (1995).
Related Resources: Organizational Change Process (see the first section: “Addressing White Dominant Culture”)
Location: ACT / Strategies