Training and Popular Education

Training and popular education are strategies intended to build individuals’ and groups’ capacity to understand structural racism, practice analyzing and applying, and build confidence and skills to act individually and collectively. Groups using these strategies should note that, while they are important components of a comprehensive effort, training should not be confused with doing the work itself.

Content in this section also includes descriptions, lessons learned, evaluations and critiques. Also see the CURRICULA tab for information about Racial Equity Learning and Transforming White Privilege modules and World Trust Educational Service’s learning films.


Introducing Transformative Learning Theory
Christine Jarvis
Sharing the Lessons Learned: Reflections on Six Years of Anti-Racism Work
David Rogers and Moira Bowman
Dismantling Racism Project, Western States Center (WSC)
Training for Racial Equity and Inclusion: A Guide to Selected Programs
Ilana Shapiro, Ph.D., et al.
Project Change; The Aspen Institute; CAPD; Alliance for Conflict Transformation
Under the Radar: Popular Education in North America
Drick Boyd
COMM-ORG, University of Wisconsin-Madison


Facilitating Through Hard Moments: Synthesize, Slow Down, and Shift
Hana Lee
Anti-Oppressive Facilitation for Democratic Process: Making Meetings Awesome for Everyone
AORTA (Anti-Oppression Resource and Training Alliance)
Facilitation Tools for Meetings and Workshops
Seeds for Change
Showing What We Tell: Facilitating Antiracist Education in Cross-Racial Teams
Robin DiAngelo and Darlene Flynn
Understanding and Dismantling Privilege Journal

General Resources

Why Trump’s Diversity Training Ban Is Unconstitutional
Stephen Menendian
Othering & Belonging Institute
Abolish Columbus Day: Solidarity with Indigenous Peoples: Resources and Tools
Bill Bigelow and Tanya H. Lee
Zinn Education Project, Teaching for Change
Building Capacity for Changing Communities
Terry Keleher and Josina Morita
Racial Justice Leadership Initiative (RJLI) of the Applied Research Center (ARC)
Diversity Training: Good for Business but Insufficient for Social Change
David Rogers
Western States Center (WSC)
Studying Repression and Resistance with A Troublemakers’ Guide: Principles for Racial Justice Activists In the Face of State Repression
Catalyst Project

Lesson Plans and Curricula

Abolish Everything, Virginia Commonwealth University
Reckoning With Race Curriculum
Living Cities; People’s Institute for Survival and Beyond; et al.
Reimagining Equity & Access for Diverse Youth
Project READY
Human Rights Approach to Social Justice
The Advocates for Human Rights
Indigeneity Curriculum
How Red Lines Built White Wealth: A Lesson on Housing Segregation in the 20th Century
Ursula Wolfe-Rocca
Zinn Education Project, Teaching for Change
We Charge Genocide Again!
Tongo Eisen-Martin
Operation Ghetto Storm
An Educator’s Guide for Changing the World: Methods, Models, and Materials for Anti-Oppression and Social Justice Workshops
Ann Curry-Stevens
CSJ Foundation For Research and Education
Asian American Racial Justice Toolkit
Lucia Lin, Timmy Lu, J. Ishida, S. Jung, et al.
Grassroots Asians Rising
Black Lives Matter at School: Curriculum - Lesson Plans, Classroom Resources for All Ages
Christopher Rogers, T. Little, R. Reyes, et al.
BLM at School
Blueprint for Belonging Popular Education Curriculum Resources
Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society; MOSES; Praxia Partners
Dismantling Anti-Black Bias in Democratic Workplaces: A Toolkit
AORTA (Anti-Oppression Resource and Training Alliance)
Exploring Racial Identity: Sample Agenda
Interaction Institute for Social Change (IISC)
Occupy the Present, Change the Future Collective Visioning Guide
Spirit in Action; Power Up Networks
Personal Privilege Profile
Interaction Institute for Social Change (IISC)
Power: A Practical Guide for Facilitating Social Change
Raji Hunjan and Jethro Pettit
Carnegie United Kingdom Trust; Joseph Rowntree Foundation
Professional Development Curriculum and Lesson Plans
Shelly Tochluk
AWARE-LA (Alliance of White Anti-Racists Everywhere - Los Angeles)
Race to Equity Toolkit for Conversation
YWCA, Madison, WI
Rise Up! Curriculum Inspired by Hamilton: An American Musical
Mariah Rankine-Landers and Jessa Brie Moreno et al.
Targeted Universalism: Animated Video + Curriculum
Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society
Teach About Selma
Emilye Crosby et al.
Teaching for Change
Teaching “The New Jim Crow”
Michelle Alexander
Teaching Tolerance; The New Press; SPLC
Teaching People’s History
Zinn Education Project, Teaching for Change
The 1619 Project Curriculum
Pulitizer Center

Workbooks and Tools

Native Now: Dos and Don’ts
500 Years of the Racial Wealth Gap: A Timeline
Megan McGlinchey and Alyssa Smaldino
Living Cities
Creating Cultures and Practices for Racial Equity
Nayantara Sen and Terry Keleher, et al.
Race Forward
Communication Guidelines for a Brave Space
AWARE-LA; Freedoms Foundation
Anti-Oppression Resources and Exercises
Organizing for Power, Organizing for Change Site
Dismantling Racism: 2016 Workbook
Facilitator’s Guide for Continuous Improvement Conversations With A Racial Equity Lens
Shanee Helfer and Hafizah Omar, et al.
Living Cities
Liberatory Design: Your Toolkit to Design for Equity
Tania Anaissie, Victor Cary, David Clifford, Tom Malarkey, and Susie Wise
Stanford’s K12Lab Network; The National Equity Project
RaceWorks Toolkit
Stanford SPARQ
Standing Together, Coming Out for Racial Justice: An Anti-Racist Organizational Development Toolkit for LGBT Equality Groups and Activists
Basic Rights Educational Fund
Systems Thinking and Race: Workshop Summary
john a. powell, Connie Cagampang Heller, and Fayza Bundalli
The California Endowment
Tools for Organizers, Facilitators and Trainers

“We all have a sphere of influence. Each of us needs to find our own sources of courage so that we can begin to speak. There are many problems to address, and we cannot avoid them indefinitely. We cannot continue to be silent. We must begin to speak, knowing that words alone are insufficient. But I have seen that meaningful dialogue can lead to effective action. Change is possible.”

~ Beverly Daniel Tatum, “Why Are All The Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?”: A Psychologist Explains the Development of Racial Identity


Indigenous Land Acknowledgment – Zach Serrano, National Equity Project

Also in this section:
  • Addressing Trauma and Healing

  • Caucus and Affinity Groups

  • Community Organizing

  • Hate Crimes Prevention and Response

  • Narrative Change

  • Racial Reconciliation

  • Advocacy

  • Community Building

  • Conflict Transformation and Restorative Justice

  • Leadership Development

  • Organizational Change Process

  • Youth Activism and Intergenerational Work

  • Arts and Culture

  • Community Engagement

  • Dialogue and Deliberation

  • Multicultural Competency

  • Policy and Legislative Change



An anti-racist is someone who is supporting an antiracist policy through their actions or expressing antiracist ideas. This includes the expression of ideas that racial groups are equals and do not need developing, and supporting policies that reduce racial inequity. 

SOURCE:  Ibram X. Kendi, How To Be An Antiracist, Random House, 2019.

Caucusing (Affinity Groups)

A caucus is an intentionally created space for those who share an identity to convene for learning, support, and connections. Caucuses based on racial identity are often comprised, respectively, of people of color, white people, people who hold multiracial identities, or people who share specific racial or ethnic identities.

To advance racial equity, there is work for white people and people of color to do separately and together. Caucuses provide spaces for people to work within their own racial/ethnic groups. For white people, a caucus provides time and space to work explicitly and intentionally on understanding white culture and white privilege and to increase one’s critical analysis around these concepts. A white caucus also puts the onus on white people to teach each other about these ideas, rather than placing a burden on people of color to teach them. For people of color, a caucus is a place to work with peers to address the impact of racism, to interrupt experiences of internalized racism, and to create a space for healing and working for individual and collective liberation. At times, people of color may also break into more specific race-based caucuses, sometimes based on experiences with a particular issue, for example police violence, immigration, or land rights. Groups that use caucuses in their organizational racial equity work, especially in workplaces and coalitions, generally meet separately and create a process to rejoin and work together collectively.

SOURCE: (ACT / Strategies / Caucus and Affinity Groups)

Related Resources:  Caucus and Affinity Groups

Location: ACT / Strategies

Implicit Bias

Also known as unconscious or hidden bias, implicit biases are negative associations that people unknowingly hold. They are expressed automatically, without conscious awareness. Many studies have indicated that implicit biases affect individuals’ attitudes and actions, thus creating real-world implications, even though individuals may not even be aware that those biases exist within themselves. Notably, implicit biases have been shown to trump individuals’ stated commitments to equality and fairness, thereby producing behavior that diverges from the explicit attitudes that many people profess. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is often used to measure implicit biases with regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, age, religion, and other topics.

SOURCE:  Cheryl Staats, State of the Science: Implicit Bias Review 2013, Kirwan Institute, The Ohio State University. 

Related Resources:  Implicit Bias

Location: ACT / Communicating


The everyday verbal, nonverbal, and environmental slights, snubs, or insults, whether intentional or unintentional, which communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative messages to target persons based solely upon their marginalized group membership.

SOURCE:  Derald Wing Sue, PhD, “Microaggressions: More than Just Race” (Psychology Today, 17 November 2010).

Related Resources:  Racism (scroll down alphabetically to the box for “Interpersonal Racism”)

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Multicultural Competency

A process of learning about and becoming allies with people from other cultures, thereby broadening our own understanding and ability to participate in a multicultural process. The key element to becoming more culturally competent is respect for the ways that others live in and organize the world and an openness to learn from them.

SOURCE:  Paul Kivel, “Multicultural Competence” (2007).

Related Resources:  Multicultural Competency

Location: ACT / Strategies


  1. Power is unequally distributed globally and in U.S. society; some individuals or groups wield greater power than others, thereby allowing them greater access and control over resources. Wealth, whiteness, citizenship, patriarchy, heterosexism, and education are a few key social mechanisms through which power operates. Although power is often conceptualized as power overother individuals or groups, other variations are power with (used in the context of building collective strength) and power within (which references an individual’s internal strength). Learning to “see” and understand relations of power is vital to organizing for progressive social change.

  2. Power may also be understood as the ability to influence others and impose one’s beliefs. All power is relational, and the different relationships either reinforce or disrupt one another. The importance of the concept of power to anti-racism is clear: racism cannot be understood without understanding that power is not only an individual relationship but a cultural one, and that power relationships are shifting constantly. Power can be used malignantly and intentionally, but need not be, and individuals within a culture may benefit from power of which they are unaware.

  3. (A) The ability to name or define. (B) The ability to decide. (C) The ability the set the rule, standard, or policy. (D) The ability to change the rule, standard, or policy to serve your needs, wants, or desires. (E) The ability to influence decision makers to make choices in favor of your cause, issue, or concern. Each of these definitions can manifest on personal, social, institutional, or structural levels:  

  • Personal Power - 1. Self-determination. 2. Power that an individual possesses or builds in their personal life and interpersonal relationships.  

  • Social Power - 1. Communal self-determination. 2. A grassroots collective organization of personal power. 3. Power that social groups possess or build among themselves to determine and shape their collective lives.  

  • Institutional Power - 1. Power to create and shape the rules, policies, and actions of an institution. 2. To have institutional power is to be a decision maker or to have great influence upon a decision maker of an institution.  

  • Structural Power - To have structural power is to create and shape the rules, policies, and actions that govern multiple and intersecting institutions or an industry.


  1. Intergroup Resources, “Power” (2012).

  2. Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre, “Racism and Power” (2018) / “CARED Glossary” (2020).

  3. Our Shared Language: Social Justice Glossary, YWCA (2016).

Racial Healing

To restore to health or soundness; to repair or set right; to restore to spiritual wholeness.

SOURCE:  Michael R. Wenger, Racial Equity Resource Guide (W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2012).

Related Resources:  Addressing Trauma and Healing and Trauma, Violence, and Healing

Locations: ACT / Strategies and PLAN / Issues

Racial Reconciliation

Reconciliation involves three ideas. First, it recognizes that racism in America is both systemic and institutionalized, with far–reaching effects on both political engagement and economic opportunities for minorities. Second, reconciliation is engendered by empowering local communities through relationship-building and truth-telling. Lastly, justice is the essential component of the conciliatory process—justice that is best termed as restorative rather than retributive, while still maintaining its vital punitive character.

SOURCE:  The William Winter Institute for Racial Reconciliation, Position Statement on Reconciliation (2014).

Related Resources:  Racial Reconciliation

Location: ACT / Strategies

Restorative Justice

Restorative Justice is a theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused by crime and conflict. It places decisions in the hands of those who have been most affected by a wrongdoing, and gives equal concern to the victim, the offender, and the surrounding community. Restorative responses are meant to repair harm, heal broken relationships, and address the underlying reasons for the offense. Restorative Justice emphasizes individual and collective accountability. Crime and conflict generate opportunities to build community and increase grassroots power when restorative practices are employed.

SOURCE:  The Movement for Black Lives (M4BL), “Glossary.”

Related Resources:  Conflict Transformation and Restorative Justice

Location: ACT / Strategies

White Supremacy Culture

  1. White Supremacy Culture refers to the dominant, unquestioned standards of behavior and ways of functioning embodied by the vast majority of institutions in the United States. These standards may be seen as mainstream, dominant cultural practices; they have evolved from the United States’ history of white supremacy. Because it is so normalized it can be hard to see, which only adds to its powerful hold. In many ways, it is indistinguishable from what we might call U.S. culture or norms – a focus on individuals over groups, for example, or an emphasis on the written word as a form of professional communication. But it operates in even more subtle ways, by actually defining what “normal” is – and likewise, what “professional,” “effective,” or even “good” is. In turn, white culture also defines what is not good, “at risk,” or “unsustainable.” White culture values some ways of thinking, behaving, deciding, and knowing – ways that are more familiar and come more naturally to those from a white, western tradition – while devaluing or rendering invisible other ways. And it does this without ever having to explicitly say so...

  2. An artificial, historically constructed culture which expresses, justifies, and binds together the United States white supremacy system. It is the glue that binds together white-controlled institutions into systems and white-controlled systems into the global white supremacy system.


1. Gita Gulati-Partee and Maggie Potapchuk, “Paying Attention to White Culture and Privilege: A Missing Link to Advancing Racial Equity” (The Foundation Review vol. 6: issue 1, 2014).

2. Sharon Martinas and the Challenging White Supremacy Workshop, 4th revision (1995).

Related Resources:  Organizational Change Process (see the first section: “Addressing White Dominant Culture”)

Location: ACT / Strategies