Issue Data

The data in this section are posted by issue. For example, does the data make it easy to see how system factors contribute to individual group outcomes? Do the data illustrate relationships among multiple institutional or cultural factors? (For example, comparing graduation rates with property tax funding or segregation index.) Do they motivate action by painting a new and realistic picture of the issues in a way that creates a sense of urgency, and, at the same time, suggest that the users can do something to make a difference? Please see the tipsheet How Can We Avoid “Blaming the Victim” When We Present Information on Poor Outcomes for Different Racial, Ethnic, Language or Immigrant Groups in Our Community?

Children and Education

Title
Author
Organization
Is Your State Prioritizing Teacher Diversity & Equity?
The Education Trust
How to Embed a Racial and Ethnic Equity Perspective in Research: Practical Guidance for the Research Process
Kristine Andrews, Jenita Parekh, and Shantai Peckoo
Child Trends
National Center for Education Statistics
U.S. Department of Education
Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education: Data Analysis Workbook
Dr. Edward Fergus and Roey Ahram
NYU Metropolitan Center for Urban Education
The Community Opportunity Map
Casey Family Programs; Community Attributes Inc.
$23 Billion
EdBuild
2020 KIDS COUNT Data Book: State Trends in Child Well-Being
The Annie E. Casey Foundation
Advancing Better Outcomes for All Children: Reporting Data Using A Racial Equity Lens
The Annie E. Casey Foundation, More Race Matters
Diversity Data Kids: Centering Children’s Rights
Heller School for Social Policy and Management at Brandeis University
Fight for Racial Justice at Your School
Discriminology
Grading the States: A Report Card on Our Nation’s Commitment to Public Schools
Tanya Clay House
Network for Public Education and Schott Foundation for Public Education
How the Nation’s Growing Racial Diversity is Changing Our Schools
Kate Rabinowitz, A. Emamdjomeh, and L. Meckler
The Washington Post

Criminal Justice

Economics and Wealth

Title
Author
Organization
Rent Debt in America: Dashboard
National Equity Atlas
Black Prosperity in America
PolicyLink: National Equity Atlas
Mapping Inequality: Redlining in New Deal America
Robert K. Nelson et al.
U. of Richmond, Virginia Tech, and U. of Maryland
The Chief Joseph Freedom Index (CJFI)
PolicyEd
America’s Wealth Gap is Split Along Racial Lines - and It’s Getting Dangerously Wider
Alvin Chang
Vox

General Racial Disparities Research

Title
Author
Organization
United States Segregation: Mapping Race in America (Interactive)
Othering & Belonging Institute
Rent Debt in America: Stabilizing Renters Is Key to Equitable Recovery
National Equity Atlas
Redlining and Neighborhood Health
Jason Richardson et al.
National Community Reinvestment Coalition (NCRC)
Race Counts: Democracy
Advancement Project with PICO California, USC PERE, California Calls, et al.
Racial Equity Index
National Equity Atlas
PolicyLink; Equity Research Institute (ERI), USC Dornsife
50 Years After the Kerner Commission
Janelle Jones, J. Schmitt, and V. Wilson
Economic Policy Institute
American Panorama: An Atlas of United States History
University of Richmond
By the Numbers: How Slavery Still Shapes Racial Inequality
Robert L. Reece
Scalawag Magazine
Community Commons
Institute for People, Place and Possibility
Infographic: From the Civil Rights Era to the Present
Joy Moses
Center for American Progress
Multiple Components of Race Data Library
Kinder Institute for Urban Research at Rice University
National Equity Atlas
PolicyLink; Equity Research Institute (ERI), USC Dornsife
The Civil Rights Project: Research
The Civil Rights Project at UCLA

Geography-Focused Statistics

Title
Author
Organization
How Maps Can Help Fight Racism and Inequality
Derek H. Alderman and Joshua F.J. Inwood
YES! Magazine
Baltimore Eviction Study
Tim Thomas et al.
The Evictions Study
Gentrification in America Report
Mike Maciag
Governing
Geographies of Organized Hate in America: A Regional Analysis
Richard Medina et al.
Annals of the American Association of Geographers
Loving Cities Index
The Schott Foundation
Regional Equity Atlas: Geography of Opportunity
Coalition of Communities of Color; Ecotrust; Futurewise; 1000 Friends of Oregon
This Amazing Map Shows Every Person in America
Jeremy Stahl
Slate

Health and Wellbeing

Title
Author
Organization
COVID-19: Mapping Vulnerable Populations in California
Othering & Belonging Institute
Office of Minority Health
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
State Health Facts
Kaiser Family Foundation
Stress in America: The Impact of Discrimination
American Psychological Association

Migration and Immigration

Title
Author
Organization
California Immigrant Data Portal
Equity Research Institute (ERI), USC Dornsife
Inside the Numbers: How Immigration Shapes Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities
Asian Americans Advancing Justice | AAJC and Asian Americans Advancing Justice-LA
Migration Data Hub
Migration Policy Institute
Net Migration Patterns for US Counties
Richelle Winkler et al.
Applied Population Laboratory at University of Wisconsin-Madison

Miscellaneous

Title
Author
Organization
BlackInData
Ruth Agbakoba, Simone Webb, et al.
Global Atlas of Environmental Justice
Leah Temper, D. del Bene, and J. Martinez-Alier
Environmental Justice Atlas
Inclusiveness Index: Measuring Inclusion and Marginality
Othering & Belonging Institute
Interactive Time-Lapse Map Shows How the U.S. Took More Than 1.5 Billion Acres From Native Americans
Rebecca Onion and Claudio Saunt
Slate
The Faces of American Power, Nearly as White as the Oscar Nominees
Haeyoun Park, J. Keller, and J. Williams
The NY Times
Union Membership and Coverage Database from the CPS
Barry Hirsch and David Macpherson
Unionstats.com

Political and Legislative

Title
Author
Organization
A Partial Map of Black-led Black Liberation Organizing
Resource Generation
Follow The Money
National Institute on Money in Politics and The Campaign Finance Institute
More Black Than Blue: Politics and Power in the 2019 Black Census
Black Futures Lab
Vote Smart
Vote Smart

“Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, do better.”

~ Maya Angelou, Poet, Activist, Author

SPOTLIGHT

The Unequal Opportunity Race – Erica Pinto, The African American Policy Forum

Also in this section:
  • Demographics and Population Data

  • Public Opinion and Perception Data

GLOSSARY

Anti-Racism

Anti-Racism is defined as the work of actively opposing racism by advocating for changes in political, economic, and social life. Anti-racism tends to be an individualized approach, and set up in opposition to individual racist behaviors and impacts.


SOURCE:  Race Forward, “Race Reporting Guide” (2015).


Related Resources:  Theory (scroll down alphabetically to the box for “Anti-Racism”)

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Critical Race Theory

The Critical Race Theory movement considers many of the same issues that conventional civil rights and ethnic studies take up, but places them in a broader perspective that includes economics, history, and even feelings and the unconscious. Unlike traditional civil rights, which embraces incrementalism and step by step progress, critical race theory questions the very foundations of the liberal order, including equality theory, legal reasoning, Enlightenment rationalism, and principles of constitutional law.


SOURCE:  Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, Critical Race Theory: An Introduction, NYU Press, 2001 (2nd ed. 2012, 3rd ed. 2017).


Related Resources:  Theory (scroll down alphabetically to the box for “Critical Race Theory”)

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Decolonization

  1. Decolonization may be defined as the active resistance against colonial powers, and a shifting of power towards political, economic, educational, cultural, psychic independence and power that originate from a colonized nation’s own indigenous culture. This process occurs politically and also applies to personal and societal psychic, cultural, political, agricultural, and educational deconstruction of colonial oppression.

  2. Per Eve Tuck and K. Wayne Yang: “Decolonization doesn’t have a synonym”; it is not a substitute for ‘human rights’ or ‘social justice’, though undoubtedly, they are connected in various ways. Decolonization demands an Indigenous framework and a centering of Indigenous land, Indigenous sovereignty, and Indigenous ways of thinking.


SOURCE: 

1. The Movement for Black Lives (M4BL), “Glossary.”

2. Eric Ritskes, “What Is Decolonization and Why Does It Matter?


Related Resources:  Decolonization Theory and Practice

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Indigeneity

Indigenous populations are composed of the existing descendants of the peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country wholly or partially at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world, overcame them and, by conquest, settlement, or other means, reduced them to a non-dominant or colonial condition; who today live more in conformity with their particular social, economic, and cultural customs and traditions than with the institutions of the country of which they now form part, under a State structure which incorporates mainly national, social, and cultural characteristics of other segments of the population which are predominant.


(Examples: Maori in territory now defined as New Zealand; Mexicans in territory now defined as Texas, California, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas, and Oklahoma; Native American tribes in territory now defined as the United States.)


SOURCE:  United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (2010, page 9), originally presented in the preliminary report of the Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights, José Martínez Cobo (1972, page 10).


Related Resources:  Race, Ethnicity, and Indigeneity  (scroll down alphabetically to the box for “Indigeneity”)

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Internalized Racism

Internalized racism is the situation that occurs in a racist system when a racial group oppressed by racism supports the supremacy and dominance of the dominating group by maintaining or participating in the set of attitudes, behaviors, social structures, and ideologies that undergird the dominating group’s power. It involves four essential and interconnected elements:

  1. Decision-making - Due to racism, people of color do not have the ultimate decision-making power over the decisions that control our lives and resources. As a result, on a personal level, we may think white people know more about what needs to be done for us than we do. On an interpersonal level, we may not support each other’s authority and power – especially if it is in opposition to the dominating racial group. Structurally, there is a system in place that rewards people of color who support white supremacy and power and coerces or punishes those who do not.

  2. Resources - Resources, broadly defined (e.g. money, time, etc), are unequally in the hands and under the control of white people. Internalized racism is the system in place that makes it difficult for people of color to get access to resources for our own communities and to control the resources of our community. We learn to believe that serving and using resources for ourselves and our particular community is not serving “everybody.”

  3. Standards - With internalized racism, the standards for what is appropriate or “normal” that people of color accept are white people’s or Eurocentric standards. We have difficulty naming, communicating and living up to our deepest standards and values, and holding ourselves and each other accountable to them.

  4. Naming the problem - There is a system in place that misnames the problem of racism as a problem of or caused by people of color and blames the disease – emotional, economic, political, etc. – on people of color. With internalized racism, people of color might, for example, believe we are more violent than white people and not consider state-sanctioned political violence or the hidden or privatized violence of white people and the systems they put in place and support.


SOURCE:  Donna Bivens, Internalized Racism: A Definition (Women’s Theological Center, 1995).


Related Resources:  Internalized Racism

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Intersectionality

  1. Exposing [one’s] multiple identities can help clarify the ways in which a person can simultaneously experience privilege and oppression. For example, a Black woman in America does not experience gender inequalities in exactly the same way as a white woman, nor racial oppression identical to that experienced by a Black man. Each race and gender intersection produces a qualitatively distinct life.

  2. Per Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw: Intersectionality is simply a prism to see the interactive effects of various forms of discrimination and disempowerment. It looks at the way that racism, many times, interacts with patriarchy, heterosexism, classism, xenophobia — seeing that the overlapping vulnerabilities created by these systems actually create specific kinds of challenges. “Intersectionality 102,” then, is to say that these distinct problems create challenges for movements that are only organized around these problems as separate and individual. So when racial justice doesn’t have a critique of patriarchy and homophobia, the particular way that racism is experienced and exacerbated by heterosexism, classism etc., falls outside of our political organizing. It means that significant numbers of people in our communities aren’t being served by social justice frames because they don’t address the particular ways that they’re experiencing discrimination.


SOURCE:

1. Intergroup Resources, “Intersectionality” (2012).

2. Otamere Guobadia, “Kimberlé Crenshaw and Lady Phyll Talk Intersectionality, Solidarity, and Self-Care” (2018).


Related Resources:  Intersectionality

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Racial Equity

  1. Racial equity is the condition that would be achieved if one's racial identity no longer predicted, in a statistical sense, how one fares. When we use the term, we are thinking about racial equity as one part of racial justice, and thus we also include work to address root causes of inequities, not just their manifestation. This includes elimination of policies, practices, attitudes, and cultural messages that reinforce differential outcomes by race or that fail to eliminate them.

  2. “A mindset and method for solving problems that have endured for generations, seem intractable, harm people and communities of color most acutely, and ultimately affect people of all races. This will require seeing differently, thinking differently, and doing the work differently. Racial equity is about results that make a difference and last.”


SOURCE:

  1. Center for Assessment and Policy Development.

  2. OpenSource Leadership Strategies.


Related Resources:  Racial Equity

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Racial Identity Development Theory

Racial Identity Development Theory discusses how people in various racial groups and with multiracial identities form their particular self-concept. It also describes some typical phases in remaking that identity based on learning and awareness of systems of privilege and structural racism, cultural, and historical meanings attached to racial categories, and factors operating in the larger socio-historical level (e.g. globalization, technology, immigration, and increasing multiracial population).


SOURCE:  New Perspectives on Racial Identity Development: Integrating Emerging Frameworks, edited by Charmaine L. Wijeyesinghe and Bailey W. Jackson (NYU Press, 2012).


Related Resources:  Theory (scroll down alphabetically to the box for “Racial Identity Development Theory”)

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Racial Justice

  1. The systematic fair treatment of people of all races, resulting in equitable opportunities and outcomes for all. Racial justice—or racial equity—goes beyond “anti-racism.” It is not just the absence of discrimination and inequities, but also the presence of deliberate systems and supports to achieve and sustain racial equity through proactive and preventative measures.

  2. Operationalizing racial justice means reimagining and co-creating a just and liberated world and includes:

  • understanding the history of racism and the system of white supremacy and addressing past harms,

  • working in right relationship and accountability in an ecosystem (an issue, sector, or community ecosystem) for collective change,

  • implementing interventions that use an intersectional analysis and that impact multiple systems,

  • centering Blackness and building community, cultural, economic, and political power of Black, Indigenous, and other People of Color (BIPOC), and

  • applying the practice of love along with disruption and resistance to the status quo.


SOURCE:

  1. Race Forward, “Race Reporting Guide” (2015).

  2. Maggie Potapchuk, “Operationalizing Racial Justice in Non-Profit Organizations” (MP Associates, 2020). This definition is based on and expanded from the one described in Rinku Sen and Lori Villarosa, “Grantmaking with a Racial Justice Lens: A Practical Guide” (Philanthropic Initiative for Racial Equity, 2019).

Settler Colonialism

Settler colonialism refers to colonization in which colonizing powers create permanent or long-term settlement on land owned and/or occupied by other peoples, often by force. This contrasts with colonialism where colonizer’s focus only on extracting resources back to their countries of origin, for example. Settler Colonialism typically includes oppressive governance, dismantling of indigenous cultural forms, and enforcement of codes of superiority (such as white supremacy). Examples include white European occupations of land in what is now the United States, Spain’s settlements throughout Latin America, and the Apartheid government established by White Europeans in South Africa.


Per Dina Gillio-Whitaker, “Settler Colonialism may be said to be a structure, not an historic event, whose endgame is always the elimination of the Natives in order to acquire their land, which it does in countless seen and unseen ways. These techniques are woven throughout the US’s national discourse at all levels of society. Manifest Destiny—that is, the US’s divinely sanctioned inevitability—is like a computer program always operating unnoticeably in the background. In this program, genocide and land dispossession are continually both justified and denied.”


SOURCE:  Dina Gilio-Whitaker, “Settler Fragility: Why Settler Privilege Is So Hard to Talk About” (2018).


Related Resources:  Diaspora and Colonization (scroll down alphabetically to the box for “Neo-Colonialism and Settler Colonialism”)

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / History of Racism and Movements

Targeted Universalism

Targeted universalism means setting universal goals pursued by targeted processes to achieve those goals. Within a targeted universalism framework, universal goals are established for all groups concerned. The strategies developed to achieve those goals are targeted, based upon how different groups are situated within structures, culture, and across geographies to obtain the universal goal. Targeted universalism is goal oriented, and the processes are directed in service of the explicit, universal goal.


SOURCE:  Targeted Universalism: Policy & Practice – A Primer by john a. powell, Stephen Menendian, and Wendy Ake (Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society, 2019).


Related Resources:  Theory (scroll down alphabetically to the box for “Targeted Universalism”)

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

White Privilege

1. Refers to the unquestioned and unearned set of advantages, entitlements, benefits and choices bestowed on people solely because they are white. Generally white people who experience such privilege do so without being conscious of it.


2. Structural White Privilege: A system of white domination that creates and maintains belief systems that make current racial advantages and disadvantages seem normal. The system includes powerful incentives for maintaining white privilege and its consequences, and powerful negative consequences for trying to interrupt white privilege or reduce its consequences in meaningful ways. The system includes internal and external manifestations at the individual, interpersonal, cultural and institutional levels. 


The accumulated and interrelated advantages and disadvantages of white privilege that are reflected in racial/ethnic inequities in life-expectancy and other health outcomes, income and wealth, and other outcomes, in part through different access to opportunities and resources. These differences are maintained in part by denying that these advantages and disadvantages exist at the structural, institutional, cultural, interpersonal, and individual levels and by refusing to redress them or eliminate the systems, policies, practices, cultural norms, and other behaviors and assumptions that maintain them.


Interpersonal White Privilege: Behavior between people that consciously or unconsciously reflects white superiority or entitlement.


Cultural White Privilege: A set of dominant cultural assumptions about what is good, normal or appropriate that reflects Western European white world views and dismisses or demonizes other world views.


Institutional White Privilege: Policies, practices and behaviors of institutions—such as schools, banks, non-profits or the Supreme Court—that have the effect of maintaining or increasing accumulated advantages for those groups currently defined as white, and maintaining or increasing disadvantages for those racial or ethnic groups not defined as white. The ability of institutions to survive and thrive even when their policies, practices and behaviors maintain, expand or fail to redress accumulated disadvantages and/or inequitable outcomes for people of color.


SOURCES:

  1. Peggy McIntosh, “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspon­dences Through Work in Women Studies” (1988).

  2. Transforming White Privilege: A 21st Century Leadership Capacity, CAPD, MP Associates, World Trust Educational Services (2012).


Related Resources:  System of White Supremacy and White Privilege

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts