Trauma, Violence, and Healing

How does a nation founded on violence, structural racism, and exclusion, build a fair and equitable future? How can a nation heal and embrace democracy, when its government never fully reckons with its origin story, and the resulting multigenerational trauma?


In 2020, these questions gain new urgency, as the country continues to witness and respond to the state-sanctioned violence of Black lives by the police and the increasing incidents of hate crimes. One of the strategies being used more is trauma-informed care, which supports individuals and communities based on their trauma history.


This section points to the manifestation of violence in multiple forms, including: addressing violence within our communities, gun violence, and structural violence. In addition, this se [...]

Community Trauma and Healing

Title
Author
Organization
Grief Belongs in Social Movements. Can We Embrace It?
Malkia Devich-Cyril
In These Times Magazine
Rooting Out Our Culture of Harm
Mariame Kaba and Rev. Dr. Jacqui Lewis
The Laura Flanders Show
Healing Justice and Holistic Security Frameworks
Astraea Lesbian Foundation For Justice
Rejecting False Harmony: How Philanthropy Can Support Real Healing
Nwamaka Agbo
Nonprofit Quarterly
Restorative Justice & Its Responsibility to Racial Justice
Molly Rowan Leach
Restorative Justice on the Rise
How Transformative Justice Responds to Violence Without the Carceral System
Reina Sultan
TransformHarm.org
Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart: Historical Trauma and Healing in Native American Communities
This Town Adopted Trauma-Informed Care—And Saw a Decrease in Crime and Suspension Rates
Melissa Hellmann
YES! Magazine
Adverse Community Experiences and Resilience: A Framework for Addressing and Preventing Community Trauma
Rachel Davis, Howard Pinderhughes, and Myesha Williams
Prevention Institute; Kaiser Permanente
Facts Matter! Black Lives Matter! The Trauma of Racism
Dottie Lebron, Laura Morrison, Dan Ferris, et al.
McSilver Institute for Poverty Policy and Research, NYU Silver School of Social Work
Research Shows Entire Black Communities Suffer Trauma After Police Shootings
Tasha Williams
YES! Magazine
The Consequences of Structural Racism, Concentrated Poverty and Violence on Young Men and Boys of Color
Carol Silverman, Michael Sumner, and Mary Louise Frampton
Thelton E. Henderson Center for Social Justice at UC Berkeley Law School

History and Conceptual Framework

Title
Author
Organization
Past: Rooting in Histories; We Have Been Here Before
Cara Page, Caitlin Breedlove, Talila Lewis, and Anjali Taneja
Fortification Podcast
“Notice the Rage; Notice the Silence”
Resmaa Menaken
On Being with Krista Tippett
Applying Racial Equity Lens to Creating Trauma-Informed and Resiliency-Promoting Organizations
Denes Shervington
Community Action Partnership
Healing Histories: Disrupting the Medical Industrial Complex
Susan Raffo
A Not-So-Brief Personal History of the Healing Justice Movement, 2010–2016
Leah Lakshmi Piepzna-Samarasinha
Moving, Image, Culture, Etc. (MICE)
Healing Justice: Building Power, Transforming Movements
Brenda Salas Neves, Cara Page, and Sarah Gunther
Astraea Lesbian Foundation for Justice
Historical Trauma and Unresolved Grief: Implications for Clinical Research and Practice with Indigenous Peoples of the Americas
Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart, PhD
Native American & Disparities Research, Center for Rural & Community Behavioral Health
Lessons Unheeded, or How Not to Repeat a History of Violence
Linda Bowen
Institute for Community Peace
Literature Review: Structural Racism, the Criminal Justice System and Violence Against Women
Gavin Kearney
Battered Women’s Justice Project
Michael Brown and the America’s Structural Violence Epidemic
David Ragland
PeaceVoice
The Parallels of Racism and A Rape Culture
Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs
Trauma-Informed Care: Literature Scan
Te Pou o te Whakaaro Nui

Individual Trauma and Healing

“We need the harm to stop in our communities. We need the damage to be repaired. We need to be able to have the opportunity to have a life of dignity, and the possibility to thrive.”

~ Opal Tometi, Co-founder, Black Lives Matter movement

SPOTLIGHT

My Best Friend – Ise Lyfe, Snap Judgment LIVE!

Also in this section:
  • Addressing Hate and White Supremacy

  • Criminal Justice

  • Education

  • Food Justice

  • Immigration and Refugee Rights

  • Philanthropy

  • Voting Justice and Democracy Building

  • Children, Families, and Youth Development

  • Economic Development

  • Employment and Labor

  • Health and Healthcare

  • Language Justice

  • Reparations

  • Community Planning: Land and Transportation

  • Economic Security

  • Environmental Justice

  • Housing

  • Media and Technology

  • Reproductive Justice

GLOSSARY

Accountability

In the context of racial equity work, accountability refers to the ways in which individuals and communities hold themselves to their goals and actions, and acknowledge the values and groups to which they are responsible.


To be accountable, one must be visible, with a transparent agenda and process. Invisibility defies examination; it is, in fact, employed in order to avoid detection and examination. Accountability demands commitment. It might be defined as “what kicks in when convenience runs out.” Accountability requires some sense of urgency and becoming a true stakeholder in the outcome. Accountability can be externally imposed (legal or organizational requirements), or internally applied (moral, relational, faith-based, or recognized as some combination of the two) on a continuum from the institutional and organizational level to the individual level. From a relational point of view, accountability is not always doing it right. Sometimes it’s really about what happens after it’s done wrong.


SOURCE:  Accountability and White Anti-Racist Organizing: Stories from Our Work, Bonnie Berman Cushing with Lila Cabbil, Margery Freeman, Jeff Hitchcock, and Kimberly Richards (2010). 


Related Resources:  Accountability

Location: PLAN / Change Process

Black Lives Matter

A political movement to address systemic and state violence against African Americans. Per the Black Lives Matter organizers: “In 2013, three radical Black organizers—Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi—created a Black-centered political will and movement building project called #BlackLivesMatter. It was in response to the acquittal of Trayvon Martin’s murderer, George Zimmerman. The project is now a member-led global network of more than 40 chapters. [Black Lives Matter] members organize and build local power to intervene in violence inflicted on Black communities by the state and vigilantes. Black Lives Matter is an ideological and political intervention in a world where Black lives are systematically and intentionally targeted for demise. It is an affirmation of Black folks’ humanity, our contributions to this society, and our resilience in the face of deadly oppression.” 


SOURCE:  Black Lives Matter, “Herstory” (accessed 7 October 2019).

Collusion

When people act to perpetuate oppression or prevent others from working to eliminate oppression. 


Example: Able-bodied people who object to strategies for making buildings accessible because of the expense.


SOURCE:  Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A Sourcebook, edited by Maurianne Adams, Lee Anne Bell, and Pat Griffin (Routledge, 1997).

Institutional Racism

Institutional racism refers specifically to the ways in which institutional policies and practices create different outcomes for different racial groups. The institutional policies may never mention any racial group, but their effect is to create advantages for whites and oppression and disadvantage for people from groups classified as people of color.


Examples:

  • Government policies that explicitly restricted the ability of people to get loans to buy or improve their homes in neighborhoods with high concentrations of African Americans (also known as “red-lining”).

  • City sanitation department policies that concentrate trash transfer stations and other environmental hazards disproportionately in communities of color.


SOURCE:  Flipping the Script: White Privilege and Community Building by Maggie Potapchuk, Sally Leiderman, Donna Bivens, and Barbara Major (2005).


Related Resources:  Racism (scroll down alphabetically to the box for “Institutional Racism”)

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

Movement Building

Movement building is the effort of social change agents to engage power holders and the broader society in addressing a systemic problem or injustice while promoting an alternative vision or solution. Movement building requires a range of intersecting approaches through a set of distinct stages over a long-term period of time. Through movement building, organizers can:

  • Propose solutions to the root causes of social problems.

  • Enable people to exercise their collective power.

  • Humanize groups that have been denied basic human rights and improve conditions for the groups affected.

  • Create structural change by building something larger than a particular organization or campaign.

  • Promote visions and values for society based on fairness, justice, and democracy.


SOURCE:  Julie Quiroz-Martinez, From the Roots: Building the Power of Communities of Color to Challenge Structural Racism (Akonadi Foundation, 2010), citing the Movement Strategy Center, which offers these further definitions.


Related Resources:  Movement Building

Location: PLAN / Change Process

Oppression

The systematic subjugation of one social group by a more powerful social group for the social, economic, and political benefit of the more powerful social group. Rita Hardiman and Bailey Jackson state that oppression exists when the following 4 conditions are found:

  • the oppressor group has the power to define reality for themselves and others,

  • the target groups take in and internalize the negative messages about them and end up cooperating with the oppressors (thinking and acting like them),

  • genocide, harassment, and discrimination are systematic and institutionalized, so that individuals are not necessary to keep it going, and

  • members of both the oppressor and target groups are socialized to play their roles as normal and correct.

Oppression = Power + Prejudice


SOURCE:  What Is Racism?” − Dismantling Racism Works (dRworks) web workbook.

Racial Inequity

Racial inequity is when two or more racial groups are not standing on approximately equal footing, such as the percentages of each ethnic group in terms of dropout rates, single family home ownership, access to healthcare, etc.


SOURCE:  Ibram X. Kendi, How To Be An Antiracist, Random House, 2019.

Racist Policies

A racist policy is any measure that produces or sustains racial inequity between or among racial groups. Policies are written and unwritten laws, rules, procedures, processes, regulations, and guidelines that govern people. There is no such thing as a nonracist or race-neutral policy. Every policy in every institution in every community in every nation is producing or sustaining either racial inequity or equity between racial groups. Racist policies are also expressed through other terms such as “structural racism” or “systemic racism”. Racism itself is institutional, structural, and systemic.


SOURCE:  Ibram X. Kendi, How To Be An Antiracist, Random House, 2019.


Related Resources:  Laws and Policies

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / History of Racism and Movements

For specific topics, also see PLAN / Issues

Reparations

States have a legal duty to acknowledge and address widespread or systematic human rights violations, in cases where the state caused the violations or did not seriously try to prevent them. Reparations initiatives seek to address the harms caused by these violations. They can take the form of compensating for the losses suffered, which helps overcome some of the consequences of abuse. They can also be future oriented—providing rehabilitation and a better life to victims—and help to change the underlying causes of abuse. Reparations publicly affirm that victims are rights-holders entitled to redress.


SOURCE:  International Center for Transitional Justice.


Related Resources:  Reparations

Location: PLAN / Issues

Structural Racism

  1. The normalization and legitimization of an array of dynamics – historical, cultural, institutional, and interpersonal – that routinely advantage Whites while producing cumulative and chronic adverse outcomes for people of color. Structural racism encompasses the entire system of White domination, diffused and infused in all aspects of society including its history, culture, politics, economics, and entire social fabric. Structural racism is more difficult to locate in a particular institution because it involves the reinforcing effects of multiple institutions and cultural norms, past and present, continually reproducing old and producing new forms of racism. Structural racism is the most profound and pervasive form of racism – all other forms of racism emerge from structural racism.

  2. For example, we can see structural racism in the many institutional, cultural, and structural factors that contribute to lower life expectancy for African American and Native American men, compared to white men. These include higher exposure to environmental toxins, dangerous jobs and unhealthy housing stock, higher exposure to and more lethal consequences for reacting to violence, stress, and racism, lower rates of health care coverage, access, and quality of care, and systematic refusal by the nation to fix these things.


SOURCE:

  1. Chronic Disparity: Strong and Pervasive Evidence of Racial Inequalities by Keith Lawrence, Aspen Institute on Community Change, and Terry Keleher, Applied Research Center, for the Race and Public Policy Conference (2004).

  2. Flipping the Script: White Privilege and Community Building by Maggie Potapchuk, Sally Leiderman, Donna Bivens, and Barbara Major (2005).


Related Resources:  Structural Racism

Location: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts

White Supremacy

The idea (ideology) that white people and the ideas, thoughts, beliefs, and actions of white people are superior to People of Color and their ideas, thoughts, beliefs, and actions. While most people associate white supremacy with extremist groups like the Ku Klux Klan and the neo-Nazis, white supremacy is ever present in our institutional and cultural assumptions that assign value, morality, goodness, and humanity to the white group while casting people and communities of color as worthless (worth less), immoral, bad, and inhuman and “undeserving.” Drawing from critical race theory, the term “white supremacy” also refers to a political or socio-economic system where white people enjoy structural advantage and rights that other racial and ethnic groups do not, both at a collective and an individual level.


SOURCE: “What Is Racism?” − Dismantling Racism Works (dRworks) web workbook.


Related Resources:  System of White Supremacy and White Privilege and Addressing Hate and White Supremacy

Locations: FUNDAMENTALS / Core Concepts and PLAN / Issues