This section includes resources on five theories that have become important for understanding structural racism and developing strategies to address it: Racial Identity Development Theory, Critical Race Theory, Targeted Universalism, Anti-Racism, and Racial Capitalism. Each of these theories offer important frameworks and conceptual grounding to help understand the systemic underpinnings of race and the power it holds in practice, in addition to highlighting ways to dismantle racism in all its forms.

Racial Identity Development Theory discusses how people in various racial groups and with multiracial identities form their own racialized identity. It also describes some typical phases in remaking that identity based on awareness of systems of privilege and structural racism, cultural and historical meanings attache [...]


Critical Race Theory

Racial Capitalism

Racial Identity Development Theory

Targeted Universalism


“Until we are all able to accept the interlocking nature of system of domination and recognize specific ways each system is maintained, we will continue to act in ways that undermine our individual quest for freedom and collective liberation struggle.”

~ bell hooks, “Love as the Practice of Freedom,” Outlaw Culture


Geographies of Racial Capitalism with Ruth Wilson Gilmore – An Antipode Foundation Film

Also in this section:
  • Racial Equity

  • Structural Racism

  • System of White Supremacy and White Privilege

  • Race, Ethnicity, and Indigeneity

  • Systems Thinking

  • Internalized Racism

  • Racism

  • Decolonization Theory and Practice

  • Intersectionality



Critical Race Theory



Internalized Racism


Racial Equity

Racial Identity Development Theory

Racial Justice

Settler Colonialism

Targeted Universalism

White Privilege

Racial Equity Tools

We offer tools, research, tips, curricula, and ideas for people who want to increase their own understanding and to help those working for racial justice at every level – in systems, organizations, communities, and the culture at large.

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